Câu Bị Động (Passive Voice)

GIỚI THIỆU CHUNG

  • Câu bị động được dùng khi muốn nhấn mạnh vào hành động trong câu, tác nhân gây ra hành động dù là ai hay vật gì cũng không quá quan trọng.
  • Câu bị động được sử dụng khi bản thân chủ thể không tự thực hiện được hành động.

Ví dụ:

  • Câu chủ động (active): Somebody built this house in 1930. (Ai đó đã xây ngôi nhà này vào năm 1930.)
  • Câu bị động (passive): This house was built in 1930. (Ngôi nhà này được xây vào năm 1930.)

 

I. CẤU TRÚC CHUNG

Câu chủ động: S + V + O

Câu bị động: O + tobe + V (phân từ 2) (+ by + S)

Ví dụ:

  • I do my homework. -> The homework is done (by me).

Tôi làm bài tập về nhà. -> Bài tập về nhà được làm (bởi tôi).

  • She will write a letter. -> A letter will be written (by her).

Cô ấy sẽ viết một bức thư. -> Một bức thư sẽ được viết (bởi cô ấy).

  • They finished the project yesterday. -> The project was finished yesterday (by them).

Họ kết thức dự án này vào hôm qua. -> Dự án này được kết thức vào hôm qua (bởi họ).

 

Trường hợp với dạng phủ định: để “not” sau tobe

Trường hợp với dạng câu hỏi (nghi vấn, có từ để hỏi): đảo tobe lên đầu (câu hỏi nghi vấn) và đặt tobe tương ứng với chủ thể sau từ để hỏi (câu hỏi có từ để hỏi)

Ví dụ:

  • Is this letter written by your mother? (Bức thư này có phải được viết bởi mẹ bạn?)
  • Who will be taught by Mr. Paul this afternoon? (Ai sẽ được dạy bởi thầy Paul vào chiều nay?)

 

II. CẤU TRÚC BỊ ĐỘNG VỚI CÁC THÌ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

Các thì

Chủ động

Bị động

1. Hiện tại đơn

S + V(s/es) + O

Ví dụ:

– Mary studies English every day.

      S+ is/am/are + V (P2) + (by + O)

Ví dụ:

– English is studied by Mary everyday.

2. Hiện tại tiếp diễn

S + is/am/are + V-ing + O

Ví dụ:

– He is planting some trees now.

S + is/am/are + being + V (P2)+ (by + O)

Ví dụ:

– Some trees are being planted (by him) now.

3. Quá khứ đơn

S + V-ed + O

Ví dụ:

– She wrote a letter yesterday.

S + was/were + V (P2) + (by + O)

Ví dụ:

– A letter was written (by her) yesterday.

4. Quá khứ tiếp diễn

S + was/were + V-ing + O

Ví dụ:

– They were buying a car at 9 am yesterday.

S + was/were +being + V (P2) + (by + O)

Ví dụ:

– A car was being bought at 9 am yesterday.

5. Hiện tại hoàn thành

S + have/ has + V (P2) + O

Ví dụ:

– My parents have given me a new bike on my birthday.

S + have/ has + been + V (P2) + (by + O)

Ví dụ:

– A new bike has been given to me by my parents on my birthday.

6. Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn

S + have/ has + been + V-ing + O

 

Ví dụ:

– John has been repairing this car for 2 hours.

S + have/ has + been + being +V (P2) +(by  + O)

Ví dụ:

– This car has been being repaired by John for 2 hours.

7. Quá khứ hoàn thành

S + had + V (P2) + O

Ví dụ:

– He had finished his report before 10 p.m yesterday.

S + had + been + V (P2) + (by O)

Ví dụ:

– His report had been finished before 10 p.m yesterday.

8. Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

S + had + been + V-ing + O

 

Ví dụ:

– I had been typing the essay for 3 hours before you came yesterday.

S + had + been + being + V (P2) + (by + O)

Ví dụ:

– The essay had been being typed for 3 hours before you came yesterday.

9. Tương lai đơn

S + will + V (nguyên thể) + O

Ví dụ:

– She will do a lot of things tomorrow.

S + will + be + V (P2) + (by O)

Ví dụ:

– A lot of things will be done tomorrow.

10. Tương lai tiếp diễn

S + will + be + V-ing + O

Ví dụ:

– She will be taking care of her children at this time tomorrow

S + will + be + being + V (P2) + (by O)

Ví dụ:

– Her children will be being taken care of at this time tomorrow.

11. Tương lai hoàn thành

S + will + have + V (P2) + O

Ví dụ:

–  She will have finished her studying by the end of this year.

S + will + have + been + V (P2) + (by O)

Ví dụ:

– Her studying will have been finished by the end of this year.

12. Tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn

S + will + have + been + V-ing + O

Ví dụ:

– I will have been teaching English for 5 years by next week.

S + will + have +been + being + V (P2) + (by O)

Ví dụ:

– English will have been being taught by me for 5 years by next week.

Bài 1:

Câu 1 :

1. The broken table (repair) yesterday.

2. A new mobile phone (buy) next month.

3. Flowers (water) in the garden now.

4. English (learn) for 3 months by this weekend.

5. This movie (watch) yesterday.

6. This book (read) three times.

7. My motorbike (steal) yesterday.

8. My watch (break) last night.

  • 1.

    was repaired

  • 2.

    will be bought

  • 3.

    are being watered

  • 4.

    will have been learnt

  • 5.

    was watched

  • 6.

    has been read

  • 7.

    was stolen

  • 8.

    was broken

Câu 1 : My father waters this flower every morning.

This flower is watered (by my father) every morning.

Câu 2 : John invited Fiona to his birthday party last night.

Fiona was invented to John’s birthday party last month.

Câu 3 : Her mother is preparing the dinner in the kitchen.

The dinner is being prepared (by her mother) in the kitchen.

Câu 4 : We should clean our teeth twice a day.

Our teeth should be cleaned twice a day.

Câu 5 : Our teachers have explained the English grammar.

The English grammar has been explained (by our teacher).

Câu 6 : Some drunk drivers caused the accident in this city.

The accident was caused in this city (by some drunk drivers).

Câu 7 : Tom will visit his parents next month.

Tom’s parents will be visited (by him) next month.

Câu 8 : The manager didn’t phone the secretary this morning.

The secretary wasn’t phoned (by the manager) this morning.

Câu 9 : Did Mary this beautiful dress?

Was this beautiful dress bought by Mary?

Câu 10 : I won’t hang these old pictures in the living room.

These old pictures won’t be hung in the living room (by me).