Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Trước tiên, để hiểu thế nào là Mệnh đề quan hệ (Relative clause), bạn có thể xem chi tiết nội dung bài học tại: Mệnh đề quan hệ – Relative clause

 

Mệnh đề quan hệ có thể được rút gọn bằng cách:

1. Ngữ phân từ (participle phrase)

  • Ngữ hiện tại phân từ (present participle phrase) được dùng khi động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động (active), diễn đạt hành động đang diễn ra hoặc có tính thường xuyên, lâu dài.

Ví dụ: My sister is the girl who is wearing a blue dress. ⇾ My sister is the girl wearing a blue dress. (Chị gái tôi là cô gái mặc áo đầm xanh.)

  • Ngữ quá khứ phân từ (past participle phrase) được dùng khi động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động (passive).

Ví dụ: The novel which was written by Peter’s father is very interesting. ⇾ The novel written by Peter’s father is very interesting. (Quyển tiểu thuyết mà bố Peter viết rất hay.)

 

2. Cụm động từ nguyên mẫu (to-infinitive phrase)

  • To-infinitive có thể được dùng khi đại từ quan hệ làm chủ ngữ đứng sau first, second, …, last, next, only, dạng so sánh nhất hoặc để chỉ mục đích, sự cho phép.

Ví dụ: Tom is the last agent who left the office yesterday evening. ⇾ Tom is the last agent to leave the office yesterday evening. (Tom là người sau cùng rời khỏi văn phòng chiều hôm qua.)

 

3. Ngữ danh từ (noun phrase)

Ví dụ: Ms Young, who is the school librarian, often lends me reference books. ⇾ Ms Young, the school librarian, often lends me reference books. (Cô Young, thủ thư của trường, thường cho tôi mượn sách tham khảo.)

 

Bài 1: Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ của các câu sau đây

Câu 1 : The man who is standing there is a clown.

The man standing there is a clown.

Câu 2 : The envelop which lies on the table has no stamp on it.

The envelop lies on the table has no stamp on it.

Câu 3 : Benzene, which was discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.

Benzene, discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.

Câu 4 : My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.

My grandmother, being old and sick, never goes out of the house.

Câu 5 : The student don't know how to do exercise which were given by the teacher yesterday.

The student don't know how to do exercise given by the teacher yesterday.

Câu 6 : The diagrams which were made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812.

The diagrams made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812.

Câu 7 : The gentleman who lives next door to me is a well-known orator.

The gentleman living next door to me is a well-known orator.

Câu 8 : All the astronauts who are orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless.

All the astronauts orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless.

Câu 9 : All students don't hand in their papers will fail in the exam.

All students not handing in their papers will fail in the exam.

Câu 10 : I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm.

I saw many houses destroyed by the storm.

Câu 11 : The street which leads to the school is very wide.

The street leading to the school is very wide.

Câu 12 : The system which is used here is very successful.

The system used here is very successful.

Câu 13 : John, who teaches my son, is my neighbor.

John, teaching my son, is my neighbor.

Câu 14 : Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London.

Trains leaving from this station take an hour to get to London.

Câu 15 : The candidates who are sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.

The candidates sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.